Are they wood or some base, with a colored transfer that imparts a mosaic-glass-like pattern?
Would not surprise me if the ones with the longitudinally applied are actually polymer clay. But, it will remain a guessing game...
I can’t say anything of the inside of these beads from a picture but I think the pattern on the outside is made in a kind of paper marbling technique. Oil paint in different colors is sprinkled on a watersurface. With a toothpick a simple design is drawn on that surface. Then the bead is dipped in the water and the oilpaint design sticks on the bead.
There are certainly beads that have marbled-transfer decorations. (I showed some from my trip to Java in 2008—and I have occasionally seen them in a few bead stores.)
But in the present instance, it is clear the designs are based on and are interpretations of actual trade beads. These include millefiori details.
So I am inclined to think they are printed transfers—whatever the base material may be.
Take care. Jamey
as the beads are rather lopsided shapes i suggest that the apparent swirly marbled effect is because they are made -perhaps over a wood base covered with more than one colour of sealing wax which can be slightly viscous. i have some examples in other colours but will have to look for them...
here are a few beads in my collection that are apparently wood covered with swirls of coloured sealing wax (or thick lacquer) - where the layers are cracking you can get an impression of the thickness. i will show some more but may start a new thread...
the style of long necklace with a tassel suggests early 20th C. the small black beads are Czech faceted glass.