Unfortunately, different people use these terms and names differently.
I regard the Islamic Period to encompass the 7th C. through the 13th C. The Early Islamic Period is CE 613 to 1000. However, many will say the Islamic Period has never ended, and is ongoing. Be that as it may, their ability to make glass beads virtually ended in (ca.) 1400 (due to the incursions of Tamerlane); and the rise of Venice happened at this time. (This marks the divide between ancient and modern glass-beadmaking, in my opinion.)
I couldn't define "Early Egyptian"—and probably wouldn't use this phrase. I think it's more helpful to say "Pre-Dynastic" (before ca. 3,000 BCE; "Early Dynastic" (ca. 3,000 BCE to 2,500); and "Late Dynastic" (ca. 1,000 BCE to 300 BCE); and to list the Periods in between these (Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom, etc.)—the dates of which can be looked up at many sites and through lots of books. (I am currently reading the Oxford University History of Egypt--that I've been wading through since last September. It's a tough read.)
"Pre-Islamic Iran" is not difficult to understand. It refers to 651 and earlier, and encompasses the Sasanian Empire in Persia and everything before it.
"Hasanlu type" does not refer to a period, but rather to an artifact typology (I would guess). Certain beads are referred to as being "Hassanlu beads," but the name is probably not to be limited to those beads exclusively.
"The Indus Valley" is usually amended with "Civilization." It refers to the culture complex (in modern Pakistan) that included cities like Harappa and Mohenjodaro—cities that made beads and traded with their neighbors as far away as Babylonia and Ur. Again, it's not a time period, but a place. However, the civilization spanned ca. 3000 BCE to 1,600 BCE.
The Mameluks were conscripted soldiers during the Abbasid and Ottoman Empires (beginning at ca. CE 900). It would be sort of pointless to use this phenomenon to date an object.
"Bactrian" is typically used by bead sellers to indicate ANY "old" beads recovered in Afghanistan. Generally, the name refers to the country/culture attacked by Alexander, after he sacked Persia, in the 4th C. BCE. Again, not useful for describing times.
Why do you ask?